Blocking or Exclusion Islamic Inheritance Rules

Updated: Mar 24

There are fifteen blocking or exclusion rules for Islamic Inheritance sharers and residuary. We learn about Blocking or exclusion rules, it would be best you refer to "7 FUNDAMENTALS OF ISLAMIC INHERITANCE LAW" for dynamic and simultaneous application for calculating Islamic inheritance shares.


blocking or exclusion rules sunni Islamic Inheritance


Common principles for Blocking or Exclusion Rules


There are five basic exclusion rules,


  1. The nearer in degree to the deceased excludes the more remote.

  2. A person related to the deceased through any person shall not inherit while that person is alive.

  3. There is no representation. It means the eligible inheritor must be alive to take his or her inheritance but cannot represent any other person for his or her inheritance.

  4. Lineal male descendants exclude all agnate ascendants or collaterals.

  5. Ascendants are preferred to collaterals.

  6. Full excludes paternal. It means the strength of consanguinity determines preferences.

  7. If the degree of relationship is equal, then a male sharer takes double the portion of a female sharer of the same degree as a general rule.

  8. Additional conditions may be applicable that may impact directly or indirectly the shares of one or more inheritors individually or to a group.


Specific Blocking or Exclusion Rules


The word "Hajb" derives from hajaba, meaning veiled or screened. Hajb is a process whereby a person is cut off or blocked, or excluded from heirship either totally or partially. There are two types of Hajb (or exclusions); Total or Partial. Total exclusion occurs when the existence of some individuals entirely cuts off others from heirship. For example, one dies leaving a Father and Full Brother. The Father's presence entirely cuts off the brother from heirship. Partial exclusion occurs when the existence of some individuals reduces the shares of others in the inheritance. A partial exclusion applies to all heirs except Parents and Children. All heirs affected by Partial Hajb are Husband, Wife, Mother, Single Daughter of Son, and Single Paternal Sister. Followings are the most common exclusion or Hajb rules.



Full Blocking or Exclusion Rules


There are sixteen blocking or exclusion Rules from 0 to 15. All these rules are shown in the chart above.


Rule 0

Husband or Wife, does not block anyone, and no one blocks them(i.e. Hajb not applicable).


Rule 1

Sons block Sons of Sons how low soever. Sons and Sons of Sons block Sons of Sons of Sons how low soever. Also, Sons block Daughters of Sons how low soever. Also, Sons and Sons of Sons block Daughters of Sons of Sons how low soever.


Rule 2

Multiple daughters block Single or Multiple Daughters of Sons how low soever in the absence of Sons and/or Sons of Sons.


Rule 3

Father blocks the Mother of Father as per Hanafi, Shafii and Maliki but not as per Hanbali.


Rule 4

Mother blocks Mother of Father and Mother of Mother.


Rule 5

Father blocks the Father of Father how high soever.


Rule 6

Father blocks Full and Paternal Siblings and their descendants.


Rule 7

Paternal Grandfather (i.e. Father of Father) how high soever blocks the Full and Paternal Siblings as per Hanafi, but no as per Shafii, Maliki, and Hanbali.


Rule 8

Full Siblings block Paternal Brothers and/or Paternal Sisters. However, Full Sisters do not block Paternal Brothers and/or Sisters except in a special case Full Sisters block Paternal Sisters in the presence of Daughters and/or Daughters of Sons.


Rule 9

Sons, Sons of Sons how low soever, Father or Paternal Grandfather (i.e. Father of Father) block the Consanguine male relatives.


Rule 10

Full or Paternal Brothers block Consanguine male relatives. However, Full or Paternal Sister do not block Consanguine male relatives.


Rule 11

Paternal Grandfather (i.e. Father of Father) how high soever blocks the Consanguine male relatives.


Rule 12

Consanguine male relatives block distant kindred relatives.


Rule 13

Sons, Sons of Sons (how low soever), Daughters, Daughters of Sons (how low soever) and Father block Maternal Siblings. In general children, grandchildren how low soever block Maternal Siblings.


Rule 14

Father of Father (or the Father of Father of Father how high soever) block Maternal Siblings. Maternal Siblings are the Maternal Brothers and Maternal Sisters.


Rule 15

Father of Father (or Father of Father of Father how high soever) block Distant kindred relatives. Distant Kindred receives share as per Hanafi, Shafii, and Hanbali but does not receive share as per traditional Maliki.



Partial Blocking or Exclusion Rules


There are three cases where partial blocking occurs.

  1. Husband, Wife and Mother’s share decreases by half in the presence of other inheritors.

  2. Single Daughter of Son’s share decreases from one-half to one-sixth in the presence of Single Daughter. Similarly, Single Paternal Sisters’ share reduces from one-half to one-sixth in the presence of Daughters and Full sisters respectively.

  3. Mother of Mother’s decreases by half in the presence of Mother of Father’s share and vice-versa.


Allah, the Most Glorified and the Most High, knows the best. As a human, We are limited to everything and can not perceive it in totality...
85 views0 comments

Related Posts

See All
Islamic inheritance